Soap Making

Ugwu, C. P. (2018) Soap Making. Other thesis, GODFREY OKOYE UNIVERSITY, ENUGU.

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Soap is formed by chemical reaction involving caustic soda and fatty acid by a process known as saponification. In this reaction, salt of fatty acid is formed. There are two different caustic soda, potassium hydroxide which forms soft and liquid soap, sodium hydroxide that forms hard when used in production. Longman (2000) viewed soap as class of product that serve and clans surrounding with a high demand of foaming agent in the society. It is a cleansing agent described chemical as an alkaline metal salt of a long carbon chain mono carboxytic acid. The hydrocarbon portion is hydrophobic while carboxylate portion is hydrophilic. Vin Pansky and Glady's (2001) in England generalized soap as a class of substances known as surface agent or surfactants. These are substances which when dissolved in a solvent even at very low concentration have the property of hovering the surface energy and hence alter the surface behaviour of the solvent to an extreme degree. In general, the surface active agents are composed of fairly large molecules which contain separate groups of dissimilar nature, one group being of hydrophilic or water alternating character which the other group has a hydropholic or oil attracting character and it also exhibits its actions in aqeous and non aqeous system . Slieves et al (2004) said that high quality industrial soap can be produced using sodium hydroxide and vegetable oil. Ordinarily, soap today is simply a mixture of sodium salts of long chain fatty acid. Fatty acids are the basic raw materials such as caustic soda and various sodium phosphates. A large number of additives aiming towards the production of high quality soap include various herbal extract. In the production of toilet soap involving herbal extracts, fat slitting and distillation of plant upstream is required and is therefore mostly found in integration of plant chemistry with fine chemicals. This soap can be kept for a long duration still maintaining very high quality and cleaning effectiveness which is the criteria of patronage by quality soap buyers.

Item Type: Thesis (Other)
Subjects: L Education > L Education (General)
Divisions: Faculty of Arts > Faculty of Law > Faculty of Management and Social Sciences > Faculty of Education
Depositing User: Mrs Chinenye P Ugwu
Date Deposited: 17 Aug 2018 12:28
Last Modified: 17 Aug 2018 12:28

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